A Comprehensive Guide to the King’s Indian Defence 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7

IM Siegfried Baumegger     November 28, 2023

1. Introduction

2. Basic Concepts in the King’s Indian Defence

3. A Short Historical Overview

4. Main- and Subvariations of the King’s Indian Defence

5. Sample Game - Gelfand vs Nakamura

6. Practical Tips and Guidelines

7. Conclusion - a Summary of Important Points


1. Introduction

What characterizes the King’s Indian Defence? Black can use the following scheme of development not only against 1.d4, but also against 1.c4 and 1.Nf3.

  • Black brings out the king’s knight in reply to 1.d4, and then opts for the Fianchetto of his dark-squared bishop
  • He plays ...d6 at an early stage
  • After castling kingside he attacks the opponent’s center by ...e5 or ...c5.


What type of player is the Kings Indian suitable for? It’s surely not a typical beginners opening. The second player voluntarily grants White a serious space advantage, hoping for a successful counter attack. Right timing is of the essence, as one slip might land Black in an utterly cheerless situation without any counterplay. However, once you have acquired a certain “feel” for this opening, the reward may lie in dynamic opportunities, and winning chances!

Databases like Understanding the King's Indian Defence - Pawn Structures, Tactical Ideas, Endgames, and Theoretical Trends and Understanding the King's Indian - Typical Middlegame Ideas are very useful to get started in learning the King’s Indian Defence. While GM Ivan Cheparinov provides an excellent theoretical repertoire in his two-part course King's Indian Defence - Expert Repertoire for Black - Part 1 and Part 2.


2. Basic Concepts in the King’s Indian Defence

Attacking the Center with ...e5

This is the most common method for Black. In the Classical System 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Nf3 0-0 6.Be2 the mainline runs 6...e5 7.0-0 Nc6.


The combined power of the c6-knight, e5-pawn, and g7-bishop is aimed at the pawn on d4 which has to declare itself. Taking on e5 is possible, but in the resulting position White has a weak square on d4 – this offers Black counter chances. The most logical continuation consists of 8.d5 Ne7 leading to the pawn structure seen most often in the KID. The main plans of both sides are largely predetermined: White will try to break through on the queenside by c4-c5, while Black will prepare ...f7-f5 with counterplay in the center and on the kingside (see our sample game).

Attacking the Center with ...c5

White has some systems at his disposal that are directed against Black’s counterplay with ...e5 (either preventing it or making it ineffective). As a rule Black then can switch to ...c5. For example after 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Be2 0-0 the Averbakh-System 6.Bg5 (see Main- and Subvariations for more details) prevents 6...e5? due to 7.dxe5 dxe5 8.Qxd8 Rxd8 9.Nd5 winning material. Following 6...c5 7.d5 a Benoni-style structure occurs.


Having provoked d4-d5, Black gains the resources ...e7-e6 and ...b7-b5 (either immediately in Benkö-Gambit style or after ...a6). He needs this pawn levers to be able to open lines and create perspectives for the rooks.

The Pawn Lever ...c6

Let’s take a look at the Bagirov-System to discuss when Black should use this resource. 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Nf3 0-0 6.h3. Now both 6...e5 and 6...c5 are viable. We concentrate on 6...e5 7.d5 Na6 (heading for c5) 8.Be3 Nc5 9.Nd2 a5 (preventing b4). Now comes an important idea: 10.g4!?


White gains even more space and prevents any counterplay with ...f5, as this would merely weaken Black’s king position - there is no White king to attack on g1! There are however some drawbacks connected to the move g4 as well. White’s king will never again be safe on the kingside and after 10...c6! also not on the queenside. After 11.Be2 a4 White can expand further by g4-g5, and h3-h4, while Black activates his pieces by e.g. ...Qa5, ...Bd7, ...b5, ...Rc8 leading to a double-edged fight.

To summarize: The lever ...c6 becomes a viable option in positions with a closed center, where White answers ...e5 with d5, and goes for play on the kingside (leaving his king in the middle).

Attacking the Center with ...b5

When is it possible to go for counterplay with ...b5? It’s typically played in connection with ...c5 (i.e. in Benoni-structures) to get counterplay on the queenside, in lines where White goes for queenside castling or, mentioning a concrete example, the Fianchetto-System: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nf3 Bg7 4.g3 d6 5.Bg2 0-0 6.0-0 Nc6 7.Nc3 a6.


We have arrived at the starting position of the Panno-Variation (6...Nc6 followed by 7...a6). Black combines piece-pressure against d4 (possibly combined with ...e5) with preparing counterplay against c4 by ...a6, ...Rb8, and ...b5. Now play branches out in many directions; one of the main lines runs 8.d5 Na5 9.Nd2 c5 10.Qc2 Rb8 11.b3 b5 12.Bb2. Black has carried out his main plan, whereas White defended against all direct threats. To keep his counterplay going Black can try 12...dxc4 13.bxc4 Bh6 14.f4 e5 when we see more of the same: Black creates threats, while White defends and hopes that his positional pluses (more space, bad position of the a5-knight) will tell in the long run. Practice shows that the chances are dynamically balanced.

The Role of the King’s Indian Bishop

The g7-bishop plays a very important role in Black’s setup. It adds pressure to d4 and supports the ...c5 and ...e5 advance. The first one is aimed at opening the long diagonal, where the bishop is beautifully positioned. The second one leads after d5 to a blocked position, where the g7-bishop stares into his own e5-pawn. This “bad” bishop fulfils the important function of stabilizing the position, and enables Black to go for counterplay on the kingside with ...f5. Somewhat paradoxically the g7-bishop can become extremely strong, once it gets out. A dream scenario for the King’s Indian player may look like this:


Donner-Gligoric, Eersel 1968, position after 21...e4!

The buried bishop is brought back to life with a bang! After 22.Nxe4 Bh3 23.Re1 Be5 24.Qe2 Kh8 Gligoric gained a decisive attack.


3. A Short Historical Overview

According to MegaBase, the first games with the King’s Indian were played by Indian player Moheschunder Bannerjee in several against famous Englishman John Cochrane (viz the Cochrane Gambit 4.Nxf7 against the Petrov-Defence) during the latter’s stay in Calcutta from 1848 to 1860. The score was anything but a success for Black (12 losses, 6 wins, 1 draw), but in some games Black managed to employ typical strategy of attacking the center with ...e5. One successful example:


Bonnerjee’s answer 6...e5!? to the Four Pawns Attack counts as quite playable by today’s standards and led to a quick success, when White played 7.fxe5 dxe5 8.Nxe5? (8.d5 is better). Black undermined the opponent’s mighty pawn center by 8...c5! 9.d5 Nxe4!? (9...Re8! is even better) getting a big advantage.

Correspondence Chess World Champion Gennadi Nesis calls the German master Louis Paulsen the “father of the King’s Indian Defence” as he anticipated many motives and concepts of the opening in his games and writings. The naming of the opening dates back to the 1920s when Austrian master Hans Kmoch, suggested that lines with the Fianchetto of the queen’s bishop after 1...Nf6 can be called “Queen’s Indian Defence” and lines with the Fianchetto of the king’s bishop “King’s Indian Defence”.

Richard Reti and World Champion Max Euwe played it successfully in several games in the 1920s. A first surge in popularity came in the 1950s when many elite players took it up: Bronstein, Boleslavsky, Geller, Najdorf, Gligoric (the list could go on). In the candidate’s tournament in Zürich 1953 - check out the classic tournament book by Bronstein! – the KID was played in 43 out of 210 games. As a result of these high-level clashes, modern theorectical lines crystallized; among them the so called Mar del Plata Variation (see Main- and Subvariations).


Taimanov-Najdorf, Zürich 1953, position after 31...Bh3

The diagrammed position illustrates what King’s Indian players are dreaming of. Every single black piece takes part in the attack against the white King! Najdorf won in great style.

Amongst the World Champions playing the King’s Indian on a regular basis, contributing lots of ideas, we find Mikhail Tal, Robert Fischer, and Garry Kasparov. Notably Tal and Kasparov played it with success in their World Championship matches against Botvinnik and Karpov.


4. Main- and Subvariations of the King’s Indian Defence

Systems after 1d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6

Four Pawns Attack 5.f4

5.f4 is the most aggressive system and was at some point regarded as the “refutation” of the King’s Indian. While this is clearly not the case, it can be a strong weapon that suits attacking players. Black definitely needs to know what he is doing in order stave off the first wave of attack. The tried and test recipe is to transfer the game into a Modern Benoni: 5...0-0 6.Nf3 c5 (6...e5!? was mentioned under “History”) 7.d5 (7.dxc5 Qa5 8.Bd3 Qxc5 is an altervative) 7...e6 8.Be2 (or 8.dxe6!? fxe6 with unclear play, is advocated by GM Moskalenko in his 1.d4-repertoire book) 8...exd5 9.cxd5.


After the most principled move 9...Re8, sharp complications arise after 10.e5!?. The more positional alternative is 9...Bg4 – by exchanging the f3-knight, Black neutralises the e4-e5 advance. Both lines are playable and lead to lively play with dynamic equality.

Sämisch System 5.f3

White bolsters the center and takes g4 under control in preparation for Be3. After 5.f3 0-0 6.Be3 (alternatives are 6.Bg5 and 6.Nge2), we reach the main starting position of the Sämisch System. In many classical games there followed 6...e5 7.d5 Nh5 8.Qd2 f5 9.0-0-0 when Black faces a certain dilemma: closing the kingside with ...f4 leads to quite a passive position, where White can prepare to expand on the queenside, while keeping the tension allows White to open the kingside with exf5. This doesn’t exhaust Black’s resources, but on the whole, White’s game is easier in the 6...e5-line due to his advantage in space.

Gradually the pawn sacrifice 6...c5 became the most popular move, once it was established that after 7.dxc5 dxc5 8.Qxd8 Rxd8 10.Bxc5 Nc6. Black has sufficient compensation even without queens on the board. Recently 7.Nge2 Nc6 8.d5 (or Qd2) Ne5 is played in most of the games.


Black can choose between 9...e6 and 9...h5, both leading to complex positions with chances for both sides.

Makogonov System 5.h3

Like in the Sämisch, White covers g4 in order to play Be3 - but without taking away the f3-square for the g1-knight. This has been quite popular in recent times and some fresh theory has been developed in previously uncharted waters. After 5...0-0 6.Be3, the uncommon 6...Nc6!? has recently been played by several super-GMs – Firouza, Mamedjarov, Aronian, and Carlsen in the European Team Championship in Budva 2023. 6...Nc6 prepares ...e5, while keeping some other options. After 7.d5 Ne5 (Carlsen played 7...Nb4) the diagonal of the g7-bishop is opened, which compensates for the loss of a tempo – check out the great clash Caruana-Firouza, Tata Steel 2020!

6...c5 can lead to a Benoni after 7.d5 e6 or the Maroczy-structure by 7.Nf3 cxd4 (7...Qa5!?) 8.Nxd4. The typical King’s Indian move 6...e5 can lead to 7.d5 Na6 8.g4 Nc5 9.f3 a5.


After 10.Qd2 (10.h4!?), Black goes for counterplay on the queenside by 10...c6 (see “Basic Concepts”), while White prepares to expand on the kingside with Ng1-e2-g3, and h3-h4-h5, with a double-edged fight ahead! Have a look at GM Davorin Kuljasevic’s repertoire Modern Makogonov System The main alternative to 6.Be3, i.e. the line 6.Nf3 is explored by GM Mihail Marin in Play the Makogonov System.

Seirawan System 5.Bd3

5.Bd3 0-0 6.Nge2. White develops in a solid way, but the d4-square is less defended than in other lines: 6…Nc6!? with the idea of 7.0-0 (7.d5 is answered by Ne5, hitting the d3-bishop) 7…e5 8.d5 Nd4!.


Black uses the chance to place the knigh actively in the center. It’s important, that White cannot win a pawn by 9.Nxd4 exd4 10.Nb5 due to 10…Re8 11.Re1 a6!? 12.Nxd4 Nxd5! with fully adequate counterplay.

Hungarian System 5.Nge2

After 5…0-0 6.Ng3 (6.f3 leads back to the Sämisch System) Black can as usual choose between 6…e5, and 6…c5, while 6…h5!? (Le-Firouza, Saint Louis Blitz 2023) might be fun to explore. One of the main lines contains a nasty trap that Black should be aware of: 6…e5 7.d5 a5 8.Be2 Na6 9.h4 h5 10.Bg5 Nc5?.


12.Bxh5! gxh5 13.Nxh5 Ncd7 14.Qf3. For the sacrificed piece, White has two pawns and a nasty pin. Black has no sufficient defence against the upcoming Rh1-h3-g3. Black can avoid all this by 11…Qe8 reaching a playable position, with chances for both sides. GM Boris Avrukh concludes that 5.Nge2 contains more venom, than it might seem and offers a Tricky Repertoire for White against the King's Indian Defence based on the Hungarian System.

Lines after 5.Be2 0-0

Averbakh System 6.Bg5

As already mentioned in “Basic Concepts6...e5? is not immediately available. A useful way to prepare ...e5 consists of 6...Na6. Now White can choose between 7.h4, 7.f4, or the less committal 7.Qd2. This flexibility makes the Averbakh an attractive option.

In the vast majority of games Black chooses 6...c5, when after 7.d5 e6 (7...h6 is an alternative) 8.Qd2 exd5 9.exd5 an important theoretical position is reached.


We have a symmetrical Benoni-structure on the board (as opposed to the asymmetrical structure in the Modern Benoni with a pawn on e4 instead of c4). Black lacks space, and without a specific plan of counterplay he will be worse. There is however an approved way of reaching equality: 9...Qb6 (unpinning the knight) 10.Nf3 Bf5 with the idea of 11...Ne4 (activating the g7-bishop). White can try 11.Nh4 Ne4 12.Nxe4 Bxe4 13.f3, which scored well for White until it was discovered that 13...h6! 14.Bxh6 Bxh6 15.Qxh6 Qxb2 16.0-0 Bc2! offers Black adequate counter-chances in spite of the strange position of his light-squared bishop.

Neo-Averbakh System 6.Be3

Together with 6.h4 a rather young, but quite serious system, popularized by GM Alexander Riazantsev! In contrast to the Averbakh System, Black can play 6…e5, when after 7.d5 Na6 White can play 8.g4 (GM Boris Avrukh’s mainline in his course based on 6.Be3 Complete Repertoire against the King's Indian Defense) or 8.h4!?, e.g. 8…Nc5 9.Qc2 a5 10.h5 which, although complicated, looks quite attractive for White.

By way of alternatives, Black has the less explored 6…Nc6 or the Benoni-style 6…c5 at his disposal. After 7.d5 e6 8.Nf3 exd5 9.cxd5, GM Cheparinov analyses the active 9…b5!? in his course on the King’s Indian.


System 6.h4

This modern line can be reached via the move order 3.h4!? Bg7 4.Nc3 d6 5.e4 0-0 6.Be2. Now 6…e5, 6…c5, or something else? In his course Aggressive Repertoire for White - 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.h4 GM Pavel Eljanov states categorically that “6…e5 is wrong. In this case the pawn on h4 is just perfectly placed and ready to move forward.”6…c5 is the most popular move. There can follow 7.d5 e6 8.h5 exd5 9.exd5 Re8 10.h6!?. White is not playing for an attack, but considers that the h6-pawn will be a long-term asset. 10…Bh8 11.Bg5 Qb6 12.b3 Ne4 13.Nxe4 Rxe4 14.Kf1 Nd7.


While Black’s position is acceptable, White has slightly better chances, as the h6-pawn makes Black’s king a bit vulnerable.

An interesting line to explore could be 6…h5, leading to less concrete play. This was tried successfully in Fier, A-van Foreest,J at the Grand Suisse, Douglas 2023.

Lines after 5.Nf3 0-0

Classical System 6.Be2

In the Classical System White’s play is solid and straightforward: Fast development including kingside castling (with few exceptions). In the vast majority of games, Black now goes for 6…e5. Before we look at this in more detail, we will have a short look on the other options: 6…c5 is possible, leading to the Benoni-structure after 7.d5 or the Maroczy-structure after 7.0-0 cxd4 8.Nxd4 Nc6 9.Be3. That’s playable, but White is thought to have some advantage in both cases. 6…Bg4 had been played, with the idea of putting pressure on d4. After 7.Be3 Nfd7 (opening up the g7-bishop and planning to add further pressure against the d4-pawn by …Nc6) 8.Ng1!? Bxe2 9.Nxe2 White has a slight advantage is his center is solid. There are also moves like 8.Qd2 or 7.0-0 which may be even more promising. Moves like 6…Na6 or 6…Nbd7 are typically followed up by 7…e5, leading back to 6…e5.

After 6.Be2 e5 we have arrived at another branching point. White has the choice between several systems.


  • Exchange Variation 7.dxe5
  • Gligoric System 7.Be3
  • Petrosian System 7.d5
  • Main Line 7.0-0

The Exchange Variation is regarded as quite tame. After 7.dxe5 dxe5 8.Qxd8 Rxd8 9.Bg5 Black has to be slightly careful due to the pin, however simply 9…Re8 (stepping out of the pin and covering the e5-pawn) leads to equality. Have a look at the instructive game Danailov-Kasparov, U20 World Champioship, Dortmund 1977 in order to get an idea of how to play this positions for a win as Black.

The Gligoric System is designed against the move 7…Nc6, which is Black’s main line after 7.0-0. After 7.Be3 Nc6? 8.d5 Ne7 9.Nd2! White reaches an optimal setup for his pieces and is immediately ready for the advance c4-c5. A principled (though probably risky) reaction consists in 7...Ng4 8.Bg5 f6 9.Bh4 g5 10.Bg3 Nh6 followed by …Nc6. The most solid line may be 7…ed4 8.Nd4 Re8 9.f3 c6 which leads to an improved version of the line 7.0-0 exd4. Due to the unprotected e3-bishop, Black threatens to play …d5. A vast body of theory has developed after 7.Be3 and it’s definitely a serious try for White.

The Petrosian System has the practical advantage of immediately fixing the structure. The 9th World Champion had a specific idea in mind when closing the center: 7.d5 a5 (the most popular move) 8.Bg5. By pinning the knight, White - while not preventing …f5 - lessens the effect of it. 8…h6 9.Bh4 g5 10.Bg3 Nh5. Black is ready to play …f5 (or …Nf4), when White uses another advantage of his flexible setup: 11.h4!?. Theory has established however, that Black does best to play 9…Na6 10.Nd2 Qe8. Unpinning the knight, without weakening the king position, and planning …Nh7 followed by …f5 or …h5 with counterplay.

In the Main Line 7.0-0 Black has again several options: 7…Nbd7, 7…Na6, 7…Bg4, 7…exd4, and 7…Nc6. After the latter 8.d5 Ne7 leads to the so called Mar del Plata-Variation – one of the most complicated and theoretically dense lines of the entire King’s Indian. The plans of both sides are largely defined by the given pawn structure and can be summarized like this: White tries to break through on the queenside by means of c4-c5 in order to open the c-file, while Black plays on the kingside by …f7-f5, possibly …f4, and …g5-g4 etc. We have a closer look at the lines after 7.0-0 in the commentary of our sample game.

Alternatives for White on the 6th move

There is mainly 6.h3, which leads by transposition to the Makogonov System 5.h3.6.Be3 is playable; when after something like 6…e5 7.d5 Ng4 8.Bg5 f6 9.Bh4 Nh6 (or 9…g5) a complicated position arises. 6.Bg5 doesn’t make too much sense as after 6…h6 7.Bh4 g5 8.Bg3 Nh5 Black gets to take White’s valuable bishop and is at least not worse. A new line has been developed in 6.Bd3 – GM Davorin Kuljasevic has taken a closer look at this in his course Neo-Seirawan System.

Lines without an early e4

Fianchetto System 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.g3 (or 3.Nf3 Bg7 4.g3)

One of the most solid lines White has at his disposal and one that can be unpleasant for King’s Indian players. Black faces a hard time complicating the position, but can at least choose from a variety of systems and select the one he likes most. For instance:

  • Black can transpose to the Grünfeld Indian Defence by ...d5 or ...c6 followed by ...d5.
  • Black can play ...c5 in order transpose to the Benoni (if White answers d4-d5) or the English Opening.
  • Black can play the standard King’s Indian moves 3.g3 Bg7 4.Bg2 d6 5.Nf3 0-0, only to decide after 6.Nc3 which direction to take.


We mention just the two (out of many!) most common possibilities: the Panno System 6…Nc6 7.0-0 (or 7…e5) 7…a6, and 6…Nbd7 7.0-0 e5. Players who like a solid strategic foundation for their game and are interested from White’s point of view might want to have a closer look at GM Michael Roiz’ course Fianchetto System (based on 3.g3).

Smyslov System 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.Nf3 d6 5.Bg5

A very solid, though not very ambitious line. From Black’s perspective it is important to know, that plans involving ...e5 are not particularly effective against this setup, e.g. 5.Bg5 0-0 6.e3 Nbd7 7.Be2 e5 8.dxe5 dxe5 9.Qc2 c6 10.0-0 Qc7 11.Nd2.


While is slightly better and his position plays itself (Rd1, Nde4). A good recipe to achieve some counterchances, is to hunt down White’s g5-bishop by 5...h6 6.Bh4 g5 7.Bg3 Nh5, followed by ...c5 with active counterplay and some unbalance in the position.


London System 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.Nf3 d6 5.Bf4

As in Smyslov’s line, Black should have a basic plan what to do. Out of several lines, I like 5.Bf4 0-0 6.h3 c5 when after 7.d5 Black can play an improved Benkо Gambit by 7...b5!?.


The f4-bishop is missing in the defence of the queenside and the loss of tempo by h3 is also felt – Black achieves fully sufficient compensation for the pawn, for instance 8.cxb5 (8.Nxb5 Ne4!) 8...a6 and after the opening of the a- and b-files Black can generate serious pressure against b2.


5. Sample Game - Gelfand vs Nakamura



6. Practical Tips and Guidelines

Dynamic versus static Factors

In many variations of the King’s Indian White has an advantage in space. Black must strive for activity, and in some cases, not shy away from material sacrifices. An example:


Larsen-Tal, Eersel 1969, Position after 18.Nc7

Tal continued in style with 18...gxf3! 19.gxf3 Bh3! 20.Nxa8 Nxe4! 21.fxe4 Qg5+ 22.Kf2 when after 22...Qh4+ the game could have ended by perpetual check. Black had to sacrifice the rook, as after a meek move like 19...Rb8 20.Ne6!? (or 20.Kh1!) Black’s attack would have been thwarted. Note: if White is allowed to exchange the c8-bishop, Black could end up just los - it plays a vital role in Black’s counterplay on the kingside. Don’t let that happen!

Building a Repertoire with the King’s Indian Defence

As mentioned in the introduction, King’s Indian aficionados can get by with learning one opening setup against all closed systems.
Against 1.c4 and 1.Nf3 Black has to study the lines where White doesn’t play d4. Against 1.d4 preparing the variations, where White doesn’t play c4 is important – e.g. the London and Jobava London System, the Trompovsky, the Veresov System.

Some thoughts on choosing a repertoire against 1.e4: The Pirc (1.e4 d6) and the Modern Defence (1.e4 g6) are “cousins” of the King’s Indian. Nevertheless these defences are quite different in character. Many KID-players prefer the Sicilian. Apart from the Dragon, where Black also fianchettoes his king’s bishop, Systems containing a strategy based on the move ...e5 have a certain King’s Indian “flavour” to them - the Najdorf, the Sveshnikov, and the Kalashnikov.

“Is the King’s Indian a correct opening?”

We know what the answer of the late Viktor Kortschnoj would have been...The legendary Grandmaster was one of the biggest adversaries of this defence and scored many crushing victories against it. When we look at the bare statistics, MegaBase gives appx. 55% for White after 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7. That’s quite acceptable, though not as good as the Nimzo (appx. 51%), but better than the Queen’s Gambit Declined (appx. 57%)!

So these numbers suggest that the answer to the question in the title is “yes”. What about Engine evaluations? It’s true that in many lines Stockfish et al. give White some advantage, while the famous triple zeros are popping up, when analyzing more classical openings - like the above mentioned Nimzo Indian Defence or QGD. While we shouldn’t ignore computer evaluations, the important questions one has to answer for oneself, when taking up any opening, are: “Do I like the arising positions?”, “Do I manage to find reasonable moves, once I’m out of book?”, “What are my practical chances?”, and so on...


7. Conclusion - a Summary of Important Points

  • Black’s basic setup remains the same against practically all systems White can play.
    It’s of crucial importance to understand against which lines to go for …e5, against which to go for …c5, and in some cases …Nc6, to reach a fully-fledged position!
  • When learning to play the King’s Indian Defence, study the games of the great specialists – Kasparov, Fischer, Tal, Bronstein, or – to name a contemporary elite player - Radjabov, with their own comments.
  • It’s valuable to understand the underlying strategic and tactical ideas in order to understand the often quite complex theory.
  • Develop a "feel" for spotting tactical and dynamic possibilities by solving specific puzzles


All Openings